1 Read the article quickly. Refer its paragraphs (1-5) to the headings (A-E).
- Language is the most powerful tool we have for reaching out to others. We can use it to express our feelings, to spread our ideas, and even to establish peace.
- Learning English is like learning to swim or play ball. We learn to swim by swimming, to play ball by playing ball, and to speak English by speaking English.
- Acquiring the ability to use a language automatically, that is to think without stopping to think, is a process of habit formation. Forming a habit, any kind of habit, requires much practice.
- Learning English efficiently requires that you put your mind on what you are doing and have the intention and will to learn. The time you have is so short that you cannot afford to waste it by giving less than your full cooperation in class and in home studies. In other words, you have to build up language habits in your mother tongue.
- Good luck to you then in your learning English! It’s up to you. Nobody can learn to swim for you. Nobody can learn English for you. You have to learn for yourself, and you will learn if you really want to and are willing to practice. Language is not to be taught, language is to be learnt.
- Concentration will bring its own reward.
- Language is the key to the outer world.
- Teaching or learning?
- Just another habit.
- Learning English through action.
- Read the article again and discuss the questions in groups.
- What does the author mean saying that learning English is like learning to swim?
- Do you have any opportunity to speak English?
- What do you prefer – to read or speak English?
- What does it mean “to acquire the ability to use a language automatically”?
- What does it mean “the process of habit formation”?
- What does the author mean saying that “Language is not to be taught, language is to be learnt”?
- In groups, speak on why you want to learn English. Use the scheme below.
- To get a qualification
- To understand
- To use
- To study
- To watch
- For pleasure
- For work
- For personnel interest
- To teach
- To improve
- To speak
- To read
- To pass an exam
- To have access to
- Ask and answer the questions in pairs.
- How do you organize your learning process?
- How much time do you need to do English tasks?
- Are you a motivated learner or are you forced to learn English?
- How often do you speak English outside the classroom?
- How often do write in English?
- How often do you read in English?
- Have you got any chance to watch English video?
- In the chat room Pier Dupen writes about his learning goals. Read his notes and give him some advice how to improve his learning skills as independent language leaner.
- I can understand everyday English, but my vocabulary needs to expand so that I can understand a wide range of subjects, and express more complex ideas.
- I’d like to be more fluent when I’m speaking, and be able to talk about things in more detail. And I need to get better at using appropriate language when I speak.
- I can understand general things, but I want to read texts that are relevant to my work, and some of these contain quite specialized language.
- Match each sentence (1-10) with the appropriate tense form (A-D).
- Present Simple
- Present Continuous
- Present Perfect
- Present Perfect Continuous
- He is always telling everyone what to do.
- She commutes to the centre of London every day.
- They own a villa and a personal plane.
- They have known each other for ages.
- Cherry trees blossom in spring.
- Grand ma is getting better.
- He wears glasses.
- We are doing an exercise.
- He has been running, that’s why he is out of breath.
- I am working on an archaeological project until something else comes up.
- Choose the correct answer (a), (b), (c) or (d).
- Don’t listen to him. He …
- lies b)has lied c) was lying d) is lying
- You can’t talk to him right now. He … a bath.
- is having b) has had c) has d) had
- She … no trouble with her dishwasher up to now/
- has b) is having c) had d) has had
- I read the first chapter of the book, I can’t wait to know what … next.
- is happening b) happen c) happens d) does happen
- I don’t think we’ll learn anything new. She … the same thing for the last two hours.
- repeats b)is repeating c) has repeated d) has been repeating
- We … a great deal of them lately.
- see b) have been seeing c) are seeing d) saw
- The weather I nice and she … her holiday at the seaside.
- enjoy b) enjoys c) is enjoying d) does enjoy
- This soup … really strange. What spices did you put in?
- is tasted b) is tasting c) tastes d) has tasted
- Look at them. Everyone can see that she simply … him.
- loathes b) don’t loathe c) is loathing d) is loathed
- It … for two days. If it doesn’t stop soon, we won’t be able to leave the cabin.
- snows b) is snowing c) has snowed d) has been snowing
- Match each sentence above (1-8) with its tense form (A-D) below.
- Past Simple
- Past Continuous
- Present Perfect
- Past Perfect
- He woke up late yesterday.
- At nine o’clock he was still sleeping.
- He was sleeping when his mother entered the room.
- While he was having a shower, his mother was preparing breakfast.
- Man has travelled to the Moon.
- I have sprained my ankle, that’s why I’m limping.
- They have just emailed her.
- The rehearsal had already begun when the main actor arrived.
- Complete the sentences putting the verbs in brackets into the correct tense forms.
- How long have you lived (live) here?
- … you … (wear) your hair long when you were in primary school?
- Shakespeare … (write) a lot of plays.
- My brother … (write) several plays. He just … (finish) his second comedy.
- I … (not, see) him for three years.
- I … (read) his books when I was younger. I … (enjoy) them very much.
- I can’t go out because I … (not, finish) my work.
- I never … (drink) coffee.
- The actors … (arrive) yesterday and … (start) rehearsals early this morning.
- … you … (be) here before?
- Look at that little boy in the corner. He … (wait) for three hours now and no one … (come) to take him home.
- The conference … (start) two days ago.
- Match each sentence above (1-8) with its tense form (A-F) below.
- Present Simple
- Present Continuous
- “Going to”
- Future Simple
- Future Continuous
- Future Perfect
- You will be happy in your future life.
- Our sun will become a supernova, too.
- This time next week I shall be skiing.
- Look at that fence! It is going to collapse.
- We are going to study over a weekend.
- They are staying at the Ritz next week.
- She will have passed the driving test by June.
- Skim a short article in one minute. Which of the following sentences describes the main idea of the text?
- It is important to speak English if you want to be successful in business.
- Most of the world’s mail is written in English.
- English is the most widely used language in the world.
English is the second most commonly spoken, and by far the most widespread of the world’s languages. It is estimated that there are 350 million native speakers, 300 million who use English as a second language. English is spoken by scientists, pilots, computer experts, diplomats and tourists; it is the language of the world! Do you know that over 50 % of all business deals are conducted in English? And over 70% of all mail is written and addressed n English? It is the official or co-official language of over 45 countries and furthermore, it is spoken extensively in other countries where it has no official status. It is perhaps, therefore, not surprising that in recent years we have seen a dramatic increase in the number of students opting to study abroad. In the future this will cement the role that English plays in the cultural, political or economic life of many countries around the world from Australia to Zambia.
- Look at the numbers below and say what they refer to. Match each number with its reference.
- over 70% - the amount of business done in English
- over 50% - the amount of mail written in English
- Complete the text with the words from the box.
similar, borrowed, educated, Americans, Queen’s English, terms, vocabulary, film, British English, grammar, language
As so many people speak English in so many different countries, there are many different “Englishes”.
The British literary form of English is called Standard English and it is the language of … English speakers. It is used by the Government, the BBC, the Universities and it is often called ….
American English is the variety of English spoken in the United States of America. It is different from English in pronunciation, intonation, spelling, vocabulary and sometimes even in …. An Englishman goes to the town centre to watch a … while and American goes downtown to watch a movie. If an Englishman needs a pen he would ask you:”Have you got a pen, please?”
But an American would say: “Do you have a pen?”
Australian and New Zealand English, also called Australian English, are very …. Especially in pronunciation they are also similar to British English, but there are differences in … and slang. Many terms, such as kangaroo, dingo, wombat and boomerang, come from the Aboriginal … and many others from the Cockney dialect spoken by the first settlers, the Londoners.
Canadian English is different both from American English and from …. It is said to sound like American to Britons and like British to …. In pioneer days Canadians … many words from Canadian French, for example, bateau and totem, and from Eskimo, Canadian English took anorak, inuit, kayak and others.
- Read the text.
People who speak English as a first or second language have their own variety of the language, each of which is changing independently of other varieties. There are many differences, for instance, between British English and American English, and between Australian, South African, Indian, African and Jamaican English, though all can be understood, more or less, by speakers of other varieties. Foreign learners of English learn one of the major varieties, usually British or American English or some sort of international English. As a global language, English can no longer be thought of as belonging only to British or American people, or to anyone else. This loss ownership is often uncomfortable, especially in Britain. As the number of people using English as their second language increases faster than the number who speak it as a first language, there a lot of drifts away from a British or American standard.
The status of English as a global language has unfortunately tended to mean that American people assume everyone speaks English, so they don’t bother to learn foreign languages. However, better language teaching and an awareness of the advantages or speaking another language are slowly changing this situation.
- a. Answer my questions.
1. How many varieties of English do you know? Name them.
2. Are there any differences between American English and the British one?
3. Why is the loss of a language ownership considered as disadvantage?
4. How do you understand the phrase “global language”?
5. How can the situation with the drifts away from a British or American standard be changed?
b. Find equivalents in the text.
Мовний варіант, незалежно від, наприклад, світова мова, втрата власності, зростати, відхилення від, на жаль, припускати, не піклуватися про вивчення іноземної мови, однак, усвідомлення переваг.
- Write ten sentences about yourself. Five should be true and five should be false. Choose topics in the box below.
Where you come from
Your leisure activities
A problem you have
What languages you speak
Your favourite kind of music
Countries you’ve visited
What you’re going to do this weekend
A book you’re reading at the moment
What you did yesterday evening
Something important that’s happened to you recently
- Discuss the following questions in groups.
- How long have you been learning English?
- Why do people need English?
- When have you had an opportunity to speak or read English?
- Have you ever been to an English-speaking country?
- What do you think about the idea that a language gets rusty if it is not practiced?
- Can you follow TV programmes in English on satellite television?
- Can you understand songs in English?
- Do you have problems learning English? What are they?
- Have you ever taken private lessons?
- What do you find easy about English, and what do you find difficult (think about pronunciation, learning new vocabulary, grammar, spelling, listening, reading, understanding, translating)?
- Read the text and complete the sentences with the word which best fits each place. Use only one word for each space.
Accurate, aware, encouraging, express, frustrating, getting, motivated, progress, spoke, while
When I went to Summer Language Camp in Kent, I … some English but I couldn’t understand people when they spoke English to me, so it was very …. But I was very …. I worked hard at my English, and after a … I could see that I was making a lot of …. It was also very … when people told me that I was … better. My problem was that I still made a lot of mistakes, and I wasn’t … of them. Anyway, I kept trying, and after about two weeks, I was able to … most things I needed to, and my English was also quite … - I only made a few mistakes.
- Listen to the dialogue and do the following task. Choose the correct word.
- Based on the girl’s statements, how would you describe her English teacher?
- How does she feel about her Spanish class?
- She finds that the exams are quite confusing.
- She says that the assignments require too much time.
- She feels the teacher doesn’t spend enough time explaining verbs.
- How is she doing in her algebra class?
- She is getting excellent grades.
- She is failing the class.
- She is doing average work.
- Why does the girl like her history class?
- The teacher gives easy questions on tests.
- The teacher rewards students who can handle his questions.
- The teacher gives candy to all of the students.
- What does the girl have to do after she returns from the movie?
- She gas to finish her algebra homework.
- She must read her history book.
- She needs to practice her instrument.
- Choose the correct word.
- The teacher … when she caught students cheating on the test.
- If you study hard, you should be able to … the test.
- Students sometimes try to … by saying nice things about him, but they just want a good grade.
- I was … to take a test today, but I was sick.
- There were two trick questions on the test that …, and I chose the wrong answer.
- tripped me up
- butter up
- blew up
an assessment- оцінка, оцінювання
a distraction-неуважність, відволікання уваги
a superstition- забобон
to boost- піднімати, допомагати, підвищувати (ціну)
to cheat- обманювати, обдурювати
to reckon- рахувати, підраховувати
to pace- крокувати, ходити
exhausted- виснажений, змучений
to steer clear (of)- уникати когось (щось)
- In pairs, ask and answer the questions.
- Do you write notes in pencil in your course book and revise them for tests?
- Do you try talking to a partner during the school breaks and after classes only in English?
- Do you revise the new words every day? Why (not)?
- Do you only work hard the few days before an exam? Why (not)?
- Do you ever help your group mates if they don’t understand anything?
- Do you study only the material that was given at the lesson, nothing else?
- Do you give yourself tests or study with friends and test each other?
- Do you write everything you know on your hand before you go into the exam? Why (not)?
- Do you think that passing or failing an exam is a matter of luck? Why (not)?
- Fill in the gaps in the sentences given below with one of the words form the box.
Failing studying for passing taking
- Congratulations on … your exams!
- No one likes … an exam. I hope she will do better next time.
- When are you … your English exam, in May or June?
- Maria is … her English exam so hard, she doesn’t go out at all!
- Complete the text with the correct words from the box.
Achievement, adjustment, admit, attitude, average, colleges, common, failure, grade, letter, marking, method, minimum, occasionally, pass, percentage, perfect, progress, record, reports, school, teacher
Grading is a … used in schools to … students’ achievements. Almost every … keeps a record of each student’s … in order to have some basis for measuring his …. The record supplies information for … to parents. Universities and … often use this information to help determine whether they should … a student.
For a long time, the most … method of recording achievement was by …, with a mark or …, of 100 per cent representing … achievement. The … mark for a … was usually 70 per cent, and for … work, about 80 per cent. Today, the letters A, B, C, D, E and … F, are much more commonly used. The mark A stands for exceptional achievement, and E or F means ….
A few schools use no … system at all. Instead, each … writes a detailed … to the parents. Such letters report the student’s progress, … activities and social …
- Complete the interview by changing the forms of the verbs in brackets. Then act out the interview in pairs.
Journalist: What exam did you … (take)?
Viktor: FCE. First Certificate in English.
J.: Do you think you … (pass)?
V.: I think so. I’m quite optimistic. I think I … (do) the exam quite well.
J.: When … you … (get) your result?
V.: Tomorrow morning. I study at a language school and when I … (go) to class tomorrow the grades will be on the notice board. My name … (be) the first on the list because my surname begins with “A”.
J.: How … you … (celebrate) if you … (pass)?
V.: I … (go) to a café with the other students in my class. Well, with the students who have passed?
J.: And what will you do if you … (pass)? … you … (carry) on studying English?
V.: Yes, I’d like … (take) the CAE exam next year.
J.: And if you … (not, pass)?
V.: I … (take) the exam again in June.
- In pairs, complete the dialogues with the sentences (a-c) and dramatise them.
B: Was it really so bad?
B: That was really bad luck. Do you think you managed to do enough to pass?
B: Oh, come on, don’t be so pessimistic.
- No, I think I’ll definitely fail the exam.
- That history exam was really awful.
- Yes, it was. Only a couple of the topics, which I reviewed for the exam came up.
A: Now come on, calm down, it’s not the end of the world. It was just the exam.
A: Why? What happened?
A: But you answered the first two questions?
A: Then stop worrying. I’m sure you did enough on those to pass.
- I’d just started on the third and last question when my mind suddenly went blank. I couldn’t remember anything of what I’d reviewed for that topic.
- Well yes, but…
- But it was absolutely awful. I just don’t know why it happened.
- Work in groups.
Group A - Read the situation and prepare a five-minute talk on how to do well in school exams. Use the “Useful Tips” below.
Useful Tips Short Talk
- Plan your talk, but DO NOT read it
- Include all important information
- Present your points in a simple, clear and direct way
- Use informal language
- Use relevant transitional words/phrases
Group B – Speak on how you feel when you hear the word “exam”. What feelings does this word evoke?
You can start this way:
I feel …
It makes me think of …
I am …
It sounds like …
I feel as if …
It reminds me of …
Choose 5 of the following pieces of advice that maybe given to a person as the most important if he or she is scared before an exam.
- Always believe in yourself.
- Be confident and think positive.
- Think calm thoughts, ignore negative thoughts.
- Learn to concentrate.
- Plan your time. Take breaks.
- Use your imagination.
- Fresh air, fresh mind.
- Focus on just one subject at a time.
- Write keywords on papers for notes and stick them in places you come across.
- Choose music that makes you feel relaxed.
- Remember that you are more than your exam results!
- Never give up.
- Complete the text with the words from the box.
check, do, draw, remember, repeat, rub out, write, write down (*2), use
HOW TO LEARN NEW WORDS
…. the words and phrases two or three times to help you … them. … new words in a notebook, with the meaning in English or your own language, or … a picture. … any other important information about a word or phrase, e.g. words that often go together or constructions with verbs. … your own example sentences. … a pencil for the exercises. … your answers, then … them … and … them again a week later.
- Read the text and decide which answer best fits each space.
Everyone gets a bit (1) … and anxious before an exam, but the better prepared you are, the calmer you’ll feel. Even if it seems you’ve got a lot of material to study, you should not let yourself get (2) …. Staying (3)… is very important. If you’ve planned out a systematic study programme, then you have every reason to be (4) … about passing with a good mark. On the other hand, you’ve left everything until the last minute, then you should be (5)….
In the exam room ask questions if you are (6) …about anything in relation to the exam procedures. Imagine how (7) … you would be if you found out, for example, that you had only written one composition and you were supposed to write two. You would be (8) … to discover just how many people misunderstand the instructions, often with disastrous results. If you don’t know the answer to a question, try not to get (9) …. Just go on to the next one. It’s also not a good idea to get too (10) … if you get a question you were really hoping for. Even if you’re sure you know what to write, read the question calmly and plan your answer carefully.
- a) nervous b) annoyed c) excited
- a) hopeful b) depressed c) amazed
- a) worried b) upset c) cheerful
- a) nervous b) hopeful c) amazed
- a) annoyed b) worried c) excited
- a) confused b) nervous c) annoyed
- a) cheerful b) frustrated c) excited
- a) cheerful b) amazed c) annoyed
- a) nervous b) hopeful c) frustrated
- a) amazed b) excited c) cheerful
- Read the notes, then complete the sentences below.
A guide to exam success
- Follow the invigilator’s instructions. Don’t take any forbidden items into the room, or try to communicate with other students. You will be disqualified for cheating.
- Before you start, read the paper carefully. Don’t waste time copying the questions; the examiner knows what they are.
- Planning is essential in successful writing. Devote 5-10 minutes to making notes.
- Have a positive attitude. It’s your chance to show what you know. And it will be a relief when it’s all over in a few hours.
- Read the … carefully.
- Students should … the instructions they hear.
- The … watches students during the exam.
- You should study hard if you want to …
- A positive … will help you be more successful.
- If you … with other students, you will be …
- You shouldn’t … time.